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Poverty Alleviation In India Essay

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Explosion of population indirectly has put a great strain on India's economy and, in turn, hit all programmes of alleviating poverty. The increased population ...

Poverty Alleviation In India Essay

To make provision for proper security of tenure for the tenant cultivators and share-croppers. The all india head count ratio (hcr) has declined by 7. The first five-year plan was launched in april 1951.

Dandekar and rath estimated their own standard of poverty line taking 2,250 calories as the desired minimum level of nutrition. Concurrent evaluation of irdp carried out by the ministry of rural areas and employment reveals that as many as 16 per cent of families assisted under irdp were able to cross the poverty line of rs 6,4again as per preliminary results of concurrent evaluation of irdp carried out during september 1992 to february 1993, about 50 per cent of assisted families could cross the poverty line of rs 6,400 during the eighth plan 18 million families were assisted under irdp with plan provision of rs 3,350 crore. The poverty projections further show that 90 per cent of the poor will be concentrated in eight states, such as bihar, madhya pradesh, orissa, uttar pradesh, west bengal, assam, maharashtra and rajasthan.

Accordingly, the poverty ratio in rural areas declined from 56. The above estimates of poverty line which refer to the national average, vary from state to state because of price differentials. However, as they live long enough in urban poverty, they acquire characteristics of their own.

But the defenders of the new economic policy have utilised the nss data on consumption of square meals. Differences arise with the fixing of this minimum consumption standard. While on the positive side, under the irdp scheme, beneficiaries were selectively chosen for assistance so as not to leave out the really needy.

The planning commission on october 3, 2011 was compelled to announce that a new methodology will be worked out to redefine the poverty line in consistent with the food security bill passed recently by a new expert committee. It is also observed that poverty has declined on an average by 1,5 percentage points per year between 2004-05 to 2009-10. Thus there are large differences between the definitions of poverty accepted in various countries of the world.

This revealed that the incidence of poverty in india fluctuated over the years. Tendulkar and lain, in their study reported that rural poverty increased from per cm in july 1990-june 1991 to 42. Guy sorman, while delivering a lecture on development and civilization is economic liberalization the right solution for india? Observed recently (february, 1995) that liberalization must be accompanied by policies to remove poverty for it to be successful in india. But the combined poverty ratio of the backward states during the period 1973-74 to 2004-05 gradually declined from 66. Leaving aside all these differences it can be broadly said that poverty is a situation where a section of the society, having no fault of their own, is denied of even basic necessities of life.


Essay on Poverty in India - Economics Discussion


Incidence 4. Recent Poverty Debate in India 5. Poverty Differential among Different States in India 6. Poverty Alleviation Programmes 7. Economic Reforms and ...

Poverty Alleviation In India Essay

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Poverty Alleviation In India Essay Thus the problem of poverty in india is quite chronic. Later on, in september 2007, it was extended to whole of india. Inspite of 4 decardes of planning, the problem of poverty is still persisting in the country. An outlay of rs 515 crore was provided during 1995-96 and a sum of rs 725 crore was provided for the above three components of nsap in 1999-2000 budget. At the end of march 1993, about 21 lakh families living below the poverty line were given income generating assets with a mixture of credit and subsidy. The government is seriously reviewing its rural anti-poverty programmes in the light of lapses noticed and in the context of formulating the current five year plan. There cannot be a common definition of poverty which can be broadly accepted everywhere. This group suggested use of state specific price indices which can reflect the changes in cost of consumption basket of the people around the poverty line.
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    It is observed that the poverty ratio both at the rural and urban level in different states has declined considerably but still a high degree of poverty differentials still exist between backward and relatively developed states of the country leading to mounting regional disparities. The recomputed poverty estimates for the years 1993--05 as recommended by the tendulkar committee have been accepted by the planning commission. Again the poverty ratio in urban areas has also declined to 23. Little is known of their and labour in the growing cities. But by the end of 1960s, it became quite clear that the benefits of growth could hardly trickle down and institutional reforms adopted in the country were strangled by vested class interests.

    Thus, to achieve success in the poverty eradication programmes along with the economic reforms introduced in the country, alternative strategies for empowering the people to help themselves are to be designed. The planning commission estimates the incidence of poverty in rural and urban areas of the country using the quinquennial survey data on household consumption expenditure released by the national sample survey organisation (nsso), coupled with the poverty lines as set out in the report of the task force on projection of minimum needs and effective consumption demand, constituted by the planning commission in 1979. In order to provide wage employment to the rural poor, the national rural employment programme (nrep) and the rural landless employment guarantee programme (rlegp) were introduced during the sixth plan. Taking the annual per capita minimum expenditure of? 240 as the minimum standard (on the basis on nss data), he found that the proportion of people below the poverty line declined from 64 per cent in 1956-57 to 50. Although the economic reform measures cannot be said to be solely responsible for such event but there are sufficient reasons to believe that strong linkages exist between the availability of food grains, pds off take, food grains prices and poverty ratio.

    Average per capita consumption expenditure for rural and urban population as per 61st round (2004- 05) is rs 558. The experiences so gained dictated the world development reports shift of emphasis in its approach to tackle poverty from the over-reaching emphasis of the 1950s on large investments in physical capital and infrastructure to the 1970s on health and education, the 1980s on economic management and the 1990s stress on governance and institutions. Providing a pension of rs 75 per month to destitute and to person above 65 years of age living below the poverty line. But the present contract system followed for the implementation of these programmes should be stopped and proper institutional framework should be provided so that rural workers can engage themselves with much vigour and responsibility. Such a model has proved to be a success in india in the case of aids programme where non-governmental organisations have played an extremely important role. On the basis of the quinquennial large sample surveys on household consumer expenditure conducted by the national sample survey organisation (nsso), incidence of poverty is estimated by the planning commission for the year 2004-05. There is the need to compress the total number of schemes into two categories, i. These were (a) allocation of funds and determination of targets were made without considering the size of the population and incidence of poverty leading to wrong identification of families (c) poverty alleviation programmes failed to recognise importance of increased flow of social inputs through nutrition, family welfare, social security (d) this programme neglected the disabled, sick and socially handicapped persons (e) the present approach was almost blind about the existence of secondary poverty (f) the present poverty line crossing criterion for evaluation the income changes occurring below poverty line (g) the poverty alleviation programmes ignored the consequences of the earning activities of the poor people in terms of occupational health hazards and adverse ecological factors. Again in 1987-88, the planning commission revised the standard of private consumption expenditure of 15. The combined poverty ratio of states like kerala, west bengal, tamil nadu and uttar pradesh which were 59.

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    The report also mentioned about two new initiativesa highly enhanced poor countries debt relief initiative and a comprehensive development framework. It requires rapid land reforms meaning a ceiling on landholdings and distribution of excess land among the landless. The state specific poverty ratios at the national and state levels and the poverty differentials among different states from 1973-74 to 2004-05 can be seen from table 12. In 2003, the per capita income of usa was us 35,060 and that of united kingdom was us 25,250 and thus uk can be considered as poor as compared to us. Fundamentally, they belong to the same class as the rural poor.

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    Thus relative poverty is very much associated with the issues of inequality. Thus, it has been estimated that poverty lines at all india level as an mpce of rs 816 for rural areas and rs 1000 for urban areas. However, on the basis of nss data on consumption expenditure, various estimates of the extent of poverty have been made by minhas, dandekar and rath, p. But all- these poverty alleviation programmes did not yield the desired result due to some of its shortcomings. Thus the approach paper of the fifth plan rightly observed that employment is the surest way to enable the vast numbers, living below the poverty level, to rise above it.

    The objective of the programme is to assist poor families in developing skills and inputs to overcome their poverty Poverty Alleviation In India Essay Buy now

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    Thus in order to remove poverty steps must also be taken in the following directions (i) to impose ceiling on land and redistribution of ceilingsurplus land among the landless, small and marginal farmers. After a thorough examination, the study group set up by the planning commission in july 1962 recommended a standard of private consumption expenditure of rs 20 (at 1960-61 prices) per capita per month as the bare minimum amount common to both rural and urban areas. About 30 per cent of the jobs under this scheme are reserved for women. The corresponding poverty ratios calculated from the mixed recall period (mrp) consumption distribution data are 21. Planning commission made another estimate of poverty line in july 2013 by following the tendulkar methodology, as per this latest estimate, the poverty line at all india level for 2011-12 is estimated at monthly per capita consumption expenditure (mpce) of rs 816 (rs 27 Buy Poverty Alleviation In India Essay at a discount

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    Among those states with more than 10 million bpl population includeandhra pradesh (11. The percentage of poor in 2004-05 estimated from urp consumption distribution of nss 61st round of consumer expenditure data (27. Thus relative poverty looks at the angle of inequality. To achieve the socialistic pattern of society, one of the objectives of economic policy, the government adopted the policy of nationalization. What we are doing is to throw open certain sectors to private entrepreneurship so that the sources of the state that are released may be diverted to meeting the more basic human needs of the people.

    Moreover, the undp estimates of poverty also revealed that the percentage of population lying below the poverty line was 40 per cent in 1992 Buy Online Poverty Alleviation In India Essay

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    The planning commission has constituted a steering group and six other groups to look into poverty alleviation and area development programmes in rural india. Dandekar and rath estimated their own standard of poverty line taking 2,250 calories as the desired minimum level of nutrition. Guy sorman, while delivering a lecture on development and civilization is economic liberalization the right solution for india? Observed recently (february, 1995) that liberalization must be accompanied by policies to remove poverty for it to be successful in india. In 1993-94, two new programmes, namely the employment assurance schemes (eas) and the prime ministers rozgar yojana (pmry) were introduced. Moreover, bardhan concluded that the percentage of population below the poverty line rose from 38 per cent in 1960-61 to 55 per cent in 1968-69 Buy Poverty Alleviation In India Essay Online at a discount

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    Thus, it has been estimated that poverty lines at all india level as an mpce of rs 816 for rural areas and rs 1000 for urban areas. Concurrent evaluation of irdp carried out by the ministry of rural areas and employment reveals that as many as 16 per cent of families assisted under irdp were able to cross the poverty line of rs 6,4again as per preliminary results of concurrent evaluation of irdp carried out during september 1992 to february 1993, about 50 per cent of assisted families could cross the poverty line of rs 6,400 during the eighth plan 18 million families were assisted under irdp with plan provision of rs 3,350 crore. In view of the methodological issues raised in respect of the estimates on poverty and also poverty alleviation being an objective of economic and social development, the planning commission constituted an expert group on september 1989 for considering methodology and computational aspects of estimation of proportion and number of poor persons in the country Poverty Alleviation In India Essay For Sale

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    Alleviation of poverty has been considered as an important element in the economic policy of the country since its inception. Accordingly, absolute poverty is measured by a pre-determined level of living which families or households should be able to afford. The report further observed, this would be a tremendous achievement for a country which is home to the largest concentration of poor in the world. Thus, the rural poverty ratio is still relatively high in orissa, bihar and north eastern states. Guptas study came as a great deal of embarrassment to the government, economic survey (1995-96) continued to record the official figure of poverty ratio from 25.

    Later on, on april 1, 1989, nrep and rlegp were merged into a single wage employment programme under jawahar rozgar yojana (jry) For Sale Poverty Alleviation In India Essay

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    But the present contract system followed for the implementation of these programmes should be stopped and proper institutional framework should be provided so that rural workers can engage themselves with much vigour and responsibility. Although the poverty alleviation programmes have four major objectives, i. It also relied exclusively on the national sample survey (nss) data on consumption expenditure to assess the incidence of poverty without adjusting the nss consumption that is obtained from macro-aggregates of the national accounts. The eas is now implemented in 3,175 backward blocks in the country. Its main objective was to enable selected families to cross the poverty line.

    Thus it has been estimated that the poverty lines at all india level as an mpce of rs 673 for rural areas and rs 860 for urban areas in 2009-10 Sale Poverty Alleviation In India Essay

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