The report also mentioned about two new initiativesa highly enhanced poor countries debt relief initiative and a comprehensive development framework. It requires rapid land reforms meaning a ceiling on landholdings and distribution of excess land among the landless. The state specific poverty ratios at the national and state levels and the poverty differentials among different states from 1973-74 to 2004-05 can be seen from table 12. In 2003, the per capita income of usa was us 35,060 and that of united kingdom was us 25,250 and thus uk can be considered as poor as compared to us. Fundamentally, they belong to the same class as the rural poor.
To make provision for proper security of tenure for the tenant cultivators and share-croppers Buy now Poverty Alleviation In India Essay
Thus relative poverty is very much associated with the issues of inequality. Thus, it has been estimated that poverty lines at all india level as an mpce of rs 816 for rural areas and rs 1000 for urban areas. However, on the basis of nss data on consumption expenditure, various estimates of the extent of poverty have been made by minhas, dandekar and rath, p. But all- these poverty alleviation programmes did not yield the desired result due to some of its shortcomings. Thus the approach paper of the fifth plan rightly observed that employment is the surest way to enable the vast numbers, living below the poverty level, to rise above it.
The objective of the programme is to assist poor families in developing skills and inputs to overcome their poverty Poverty Alleviation In India Essay Buy now
Thus in order to remove poverty steps must also be taken in the following directions (i) to impose ceiling on land and redistribution of ceilingsurplus land among the landless, small and marginal farmers. After a thorough examination, the study group set up by the planning commission in july 1962 recommended a standard of private consumption expenditure of rs 20 (at 1960-61 prices) per capita per month as the bare minimum amount common to both rural and urban areas. About 30 per cent of the jobs under this scheme are reserved for women. The corresponding poverty ratios calculated from the mixed recall period (mrp) consumption distribution data are 21. Planning commission made another estimate of poverty line in july 2013 by following the tendulkar methodology, as per this latest estimate, the poverty line at all india level for 2011-12 is estimated at monthly per capita consumption expenditure (mpce) of rs 816 (rs 27 Buy Poverty Alleviation In India Essay at a discount
Among those states with more than 10 million bpl population includeandhra pradesh (11. The percentage of poor in 2004-05 estimated from urp consumption distribution of nss 61st round of consumer expenditure data (27. Thus relative poverty looks at the angle of inequality. To achieve the socialistic pattern of society, one of the objectives of economic policy, the government adopted the policy of nationalization. What we are doing is to throw open certain sectors to private entrepreneurship so that the sources of the state that are released may be diverted to meeting the more basic human needs of the people.
Moreover, the undp estimates of poverty also revealed that the percentage of population lying below the poverty line was 40 per cent in 1992 Buy Online Poverty Alleviation In India Essay
The planning commission has constituted a steering group and six other groups to look into poverty alleviation and area development programmes in rural india. Dandekar and rath estimated their own standard of poverty line taking 2,250 calories as the desired minimum level of nutrition. Guy sorman, while delivering a lecture on development and civilization is economic liberalization the right solution for india? Observed recently (february, 1995) that liberalization must be accompanied by policies to remove poverty for it to be successful in india. In 1993-94, two new programmes, namely the employment assurance schemes (eas) and the prime ministers rozgar yojana (pmry) were introduced. Moreover, bardhan concluded that the percentage of population below the poverty line rose from 38 per cent in 1960-61 to 55 per cent in 1968-69 Buy Poverty Alleviation In India Essay Online at a discount
Thus, it has been estimated that poverty lines at all india level as an mpce of rs 816 for rural areas and rs 1000 for urban areas. Concurrent evaluation of irdp carried out by the ministry of rural areas and employment reveals that as many as 16 per cent of families assisted under irdp were able to cross the poverty line of rs 6,4again as per preliminary results of concurrent evaluation of irdp carried out during september 1992 to february 1993, about 50 per cent of assisted families could cross the poverty line of rs 6,400 during the eighth plan 18 million families were assisted under irdp with plan provision of rs 3,350 crore. In view of the methodological issues raised in respect of the estimates on poverty and also poverty alleviation being an objective of economic and social development, the planning commission constituted an expert group on september 1989 for considering methodology and computational aspects of estimation of proportion and number of poor persons in the country Poverty Alleviation In India Essay For Sale
Alleviation of poverty has been considered as an important element in the economic policy of the country since its inception. Accordingly, absolute poverty is measured by a pre-determined level of living which families or households should be able to afford. The report further observed, this would be a tremendous achievement for a country which is home to the largest concentration of poor in the world. Thus, the rural poverty ratio is still relatively high in orissa, bihar and north eastern states. Guptas study came as a great deal of embarrassment to the government, economic survey (1995-96) continued to record the official figure of poverty ratio from 25.
Later on, on april 1, 1989, nrep and rlegp were merged into a single wage employment programme under jawahar rozgar yojana (jry) For Sale Poverty Alleviation In India Essay
But the present contract system followed for the implementation of these programmes should be stopped and proper institutional framework should be provided so that rural workers can engage themselves with much vigour and responsibility. Although the poverty alleviation programmes have four major objectives, i. It also relied exclusively on the national sample survey (nss) data on consumption expenditure to assess the incidence of poverty without adjusting the nss consumption that is obtained from macro-aggregates of the national accounts. The eas is now implemented in 3,175 backward blocks in the country. Its main objective was to enable selected families to cross the poverty line.
Thus it has been estimated that the poverty lines at all india level as an mpce of rs 673 for rural areas and rs 860 for urban areas in 2009-10 Sale Poverty Alleviation In India Essay